పవన్ అశ్విని
సోల్స్ ఎక్సపరిమెంటింగ్ లయఫ్! ™
Wednesday, November 30, 2005
  Pronounce This!
Man! Americans have definetly run out of names! There are 7 Pittsburgs in US, there is a city named California! Every other street is Madison!

Now, God knows how you say this ? (Somewhere near Vegas)

ZeeX or ZeeZeeX or ZeeZeeZeex.....oooooo.........hhhhh...........aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa Somebody help me please!!!!
Monday, November 28, 2005
  Earth from Space: Contrails over the United States
US talks about environment protection, pollution by third world coutries...etc etc....Read the article below from European Space Agency! Sad! Very Sad!

25 November 2005
Aircraft condensation trails or 'contrails' are clearly visible slicing across the East Coast of the United States in this Envisat image.

The image stretches south from the US-Canadian border down to the Appalachian Mountains and east from Ohio to New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland.

A dense collection of the straight clouds called contrails is seen between the cities of Cincinnati, Columbus and Pittsburgh. Exhaust emissions from jet aircraft contain large amounts of water vapour which, under certain atmospheric states, will condense to form ice crystals. These act as condensation nuclei around which even more water vapour in the surrounding air condenses. The end result is the formation of an elongated cloud-like condensation trail in the sky.

Contrails could potentially have an impact on the Earth's climate, especially as they often spread out to form persistent artificial cirrus clouds which would not otherwise have existed. As part of ESA's Data User Element, the Agency is working on a project called CONTRAILS to develop a satellite-based service to monitor daily contrail and cirrus cloud production over Europe and the North Atlantic, some of the busiest airspace in the world. The project concludes at the end of this year, with the results of its detailed assessment of the greenhouse impact of aviation-induced contrails being due in 2006.

Towards the top of the image on the US-Canadian border is Lake Erie, the smallest of the five Great Lakes of North America by volume. It is also the shallowest of the Great Lakes, with an average depth of 19 metres. Its milky white colour could be due to elevated levels of calcium carbonate sediments in the water.

Note also the tint of the water along the Atlantic coast, particularly around Delaware midway up the image, and New York's finger-shaped Long Island further north. This is due to sediments from river discharge as well as algae blooms.

This image was acquired by Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on 19 November 2005, working in Reduced Resolution mode to deliver spatial resolution of 1200 metres. The image has a width of 1135 kilometres.

A friend of mine was a philosophy major during his first semester in college. One day in a seminar class, they spent a great deal of time debating whether the glass was half full or half empty.

After the class, my friend was feeling pretty good about himself and what he was learning at university, so when he went home, he tried to continue the discussion with his family. With maximum drama, he took a 12 ounce glass from the cupboard and poured in 6 ounces of water. Then took it into the dining room and placed it in the middle of the table. He proudly asked his family, "Can anyone tell me whether this glass is half full or half empty."

Without missing a beat, his grandmother replied, "Depends if you're drinking or pouring."
Friday, November 18, 2005
  తెలుగు (thenugu) భాష గురించి తెలుసుకుందాం.

The figure aboe is taken from the article published by Suresh Kolichala. No intention of copyright violation. Nothing below is written by me. All of it is Only collected information, written by others. Some information is collected from Answers.com

Tuesday, November 15, 2005
  Know your Sonia! - Part II
Let's leave behind us what could be the relationship between MadhavRao Scidia and Sonia's even after marriage...that is just their personal life with no public significance...but here are more facts about Mrs. Sonia Gandhi. Wonder who will take action against her not because she lied to India public but because she lied to Indian public such matters which are a threat to national security.

Why am I writing(rather collecting ) info against such leaders of India? I am not against any political party or any national leader.
Yes afterall we are humanbeings and wrongdoing is possible. But who in the position to control the nation does the wrongdoing, KNOWINGLY and still hide them, does harm to India, it is time to retrospect, High time.
India has survived all the bad climates, bad leaders, bad times, invasions, supression what not, and it will continue to survive. But being a citizen(in broader terms than legal) of India, it becomes our responsibility to do something (good) back to our country. Lets hope for better citizens of a nation, better citizens of the world. Its in our hands.
Friday, November 11, 2005
  Know your Sonia Gandhi!!! by Subramanian Swamy, President , Janata party
This is a 60 page document by Subramanian Swamy. For a quick look...lets go through these....

More coming soon.....
Thursday, November 10, 2005
Wondering what have I been doing lately??? Well...check out my new blog...


Still needs lot of work. Pillars are Up!
Monday, November 07, 2005
  కౌటిల్యుని తలచుకొనగా ~:
అసలు పెరు ఛానక్య, మరొక పేరు విశుగుప్త

మొదట తక్శసిల ఆచార్యుడు, తర్వాత పాటలిపుట్ర రాజ్యపు ప్రదాన మంత్రి

అర్తశాస్ట్రము, నీతిశాస్ట్రము, చానిక్యుని నీతి
Sunday, November 06, 2005
  తియ్యని తెలుగు

Translation: (May not be a true translation...but close enough)

The ears delight in gentle harmonious songs and sweet words well ordered; the skin in like manner is gratified by coolness and soft touches; the eyes desire forms adorned with lovely hues and delicately proportioned; the tongue naturally is pleased with tastes astringent, pungent, bitter, salt, and acid; and the nose takes pleasure in grateful scents. But let us abhor the corporeal mansion that renders us subject to the five feelings perceived by the ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. See that thou art a being distinct from these earthly ties; and thus shalt thou be happy, O Vema!
Thursday, November 03, 2005
  Plastic Surgery - Made In India
I knew Plastic Surgery was from India but never got into the details of it. Got lucky to find this article on indpride.com. Interesting article!

The History of Plastic Surgery

image : indpride.com

Plastic surgery has little to do with plastics, the synthetic substances so common today. The term 'plastic', derived from the Greek plastikos, means to mould or shape. The task of plastic surgery is to restore the appearance and function of parts of the body destroyed or damaged by disease or injury. Though a very old technique, plastic surgery has made great strides only after the First World War.

In India, from ancient times to the early nineteenth century, we find a living tradition of plastic operations of the nose, ear and lip. The Kangra (correctly pronounced as 'Kangada') district in Himachal Pradesh was famous for its plastic surgeons. Some scholars are of the opinion that the word 'Kangada' is made from 'Kana + gadha' (ear repair). The British archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham (1814-93) has written about the tradition of Kangra plastic operations. We have information that during Akbar's reign a Vaidya named Bidha used to do plastic operations in Kangra.

The Charaka-Samhita and the Sushruta-Samhita are among the oldest known treatise on Ayurveda. Chronologically, Charaka-Samhita is believed to be an earlier work, and deals with medicine proper containing a few passages on surgery. The Sushruta-Samhita, a work of the early centuries of the Christian era, mainly deals with surgical knowledge. The extant Sushruta-Samhita is, according to its commentator Dalhanacharya (twelfth century AD), a recension by Nagarjuna. The original Sushruta-Samhita was based on a series of discourses of Kashiraj Divodas (or Dhanvantari) to his disciples, Sushruta and others.

The plastic operations of otoplasty (plastic surgery of the ear) and rhinoplasty (plastic surgery of the nose) are described in the Sushruta-Samhita. First, methods are described for piercing the ear-lobes of an infant which still is a widespread practice in India. Often these ear-lobes, due to the use of heavy ornaments, get considerably expanded and ultimately sunder. Sushruta has described 15 methods of joining these cut-up ear-lobes. For these plastic operations, called Karnabandha, a piece of skin was taken from the cheek, turned back, and suitably stitched on the lobules. Further treatment of the operation, periodic dressing of the wound and the use of various ointments is elaborately described.

In describing the method of rhinoplasty (Karnabandha), Sushruta says that the portion of the nose to be covered should be first measured with a leaf . Then a piece of skin of the required size should be dissected from the living skin of the cheek, and turned back to cover the nose, keeping a small pedicle attached to the cheek. The part of the nose to which the skin is to be attached should be made raw by cutting of the nasal stump with a knife. The physician then should place the skin on the nose and stitch the two parts swiftly, keeping the skin properly elevated by inserting two tubes of eranda (the castor-oil plant) in the position of the nostrils, so that the new nose gets proper shape. The skin thus properly adjusted, it should then be sprinkled with a powder composed of liquorice, red sandal-wood and barberry plant. Finally, it should be covered with cotton, and clean sesame oil should be constantly applied to it. After some days the wound heals up and the grafting is successful. Sushruta also mentions the reconstruction of the broken lip and hare-lip (Oshtha-sandhana).

Thus, plastic surgery is a very old science. It is, however, difficult to say when the first plastic operations on man were performed. Primitive man knew how to do grafting in plants. This might have given him the idea of transferring tissues in man and animals. The necessity arose when he lost such parts of his body as the nose, which has been a common form of injury in all periods of history. In olden days, removal of the nose was also one of the most common form of punishment. Thus it became a social necessity to find a substitute for the lost nose. The development of plastic surgery is closely connected with the operative techniques used in the field known as rhinoplasty.

The Bible contains no reference of plastic operations. There is no mention of plastic surgery in the ancient Greek literature. Homer (9th century BC) has described various types of wounds and their treatments but did not mention the possibility of replacing parts of the nose or other features. Roman legends vaguely mention plastic surgery. Genuine records of plastic operations are not found in Europe until the middle of the fifteenth century. These come from Italy. Many European scholars are of the opinion that reports of Indian plastic operations reached Italy by way of seamen and merchants, who used to undertake long journeys to the Far East at the beginning of the Middle Ages. Like other methods Indian mathematics and medicine, the Italians might have learnt the techniques of Indian plastic surgery from the Arab Moors.

From Italy we have the record that in 1442, Branca, a surgeon of Catania in Sicily, carried out plastic operations of the nose, using flap from the face, very similar to the one described in the Sushruta-Samhita. His son Antonio continued his work and was the first to use a flap from the arm for reconstructing the nose. The work was carried on by the Boinias, another Italian family. The plastic operations carried out by the Boinia brothers are described in a book published in 1568 by Fioravanti, a doctor of Bologna.

However, it was in the hands of Gasparo Tagliacozzi (1546-99), a professor of surgery and of anatomy at the Bologna University, that plastic surgery attained wide fame in Europe. His book De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem (The surgery of defects by implantation), printed in 1597, was the first scientific treatise on plastic surgery. Tagliacozzi has described a method of plastic substitution of the nose by skin from the arm and of replacement of the ears and lips, demonstrating his work by a large number of illustrations.

The Church dignitaries regarded plastic surgery as an interference in the affairs of the Almighty. They not only excommunicated Tagliacozzi but later got his corpse exhumed from its church grave and placed in an unconsecrated ground !

In the 17th and 18th century not much importance was attached to plastic surgery in Europe. The great Voltaire (1694-1778) wrote a satirical poem on Tagliacozzi and his operation on the nose, using flap from the buttocks. Many gentlemen who lost their nose in duel or through other misfortunes had substitutes made of gold, silver or ivory. The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) once became involved in a dispute with another young Danish nobleman over who was the better mathematician. The dispute led to a duel in which Tycho lost part of his nose. This he replaced with a mixture of gold, silver, and wax, of which he was very proud.

In India from 1769 AD to 1799 AD, in a period of thirty years, four Mysore Wars were fought between Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan and the British. As a result of these wars the British learnt two very important Indian techniques --- rocketry and plastic surgery. Both these Indian techniques were further improved first in England and then in other European countries. How the British learnt the art of Indian plastic surgery is a fascinating story.

A Maratha cart-driver, Kawasajee, who had served the British, and four tilanges (Indian soldiers of British army) had fallen into the hands of the Sultan of Srirangapattam. Their noses and right arms were cut off as a punishment for serving the enemy. Then they were sent back to the English command.

After some days, when dealing with an Indian merchant, the English commanding officer noticed that he had a peculiar nose and scar on his forehead. On inquiry, he learnt that the merchant's nose had been cut off as a punishment for adultery and that he had a substitute nose made by a Maratha Vaidya of the kumhar (potter) caste. The commanding officer sent for the Vaidya and asked him to reconstruct the nose of Kawasajee and others.

The operation was performed near Pune in the presence of two English doctors, Thomas Cruso and James Findlay. An illustrated account of this operation, carried out by an unnamed Vaidya, appeared in the Madras Gazette. Subsequently, the article was reproduced in the Gentleman's Magazine of London in October 1794.

This description of the operation fired the imagination of the young English surgeon J.C. Carpue, who after gathering more information on the "Indian nose" performed two similar operations in 1814 with successful results. After Carpue published his account, Graefe, a German surgeon, performed similar plastic operations of the nose using skin from the arm. After this plastic surgery became popular throughout Europe. All replacement operations which use a flap of skin in the immediate vicinity of the loss are known as Indian plastic surgery.

In ancient Europe, as we have seen, there was no tradition of plastic operations. The plastic operation on nose done by Branca in 1442 was very similar to the one described in the Sushruta-Samhita. After getting fresh impetus from India, plastic surgery has made great progress in the past two hundred years. In 1933 the first international congress of plastic surgery was held in Paris. We should always remember that the sources of modern plastic surgery are the Sushruta-Samhita and it was from India that the Europeans learnt the basic technique of plastic surgery.


Hindu culture is not such a weak and fluffy thing as to be easily stamped out; it has lasted through something like five millenniums and is going to carry on much longer and has quite enough power to survive.

- Shri Aurobindo

Tuesday, November 01, 2005
  Deepavali Shubhakankshalu
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